This article throws light upon the three main sources of demographic data.
In order to achieve the objectives, it is necessary for a population geographer to have data or facts on human population. There are two main aspects of population on which geographers generally require data.
Data pertaining to these two aspects are collected in two different ways. While in the case of former, data is collected at a particular point of time, the latter refers to the recording of events on a continuous basis.
The former, generally known as stock data, is represented by census and various social surveys, and provides information on size, distribution and various social, demographic and economic attributes of the population. The latter, on the other hand, is known as flow data and relates to the registration of such events as births, deaths and migration.
Census is the single largest source of data for population studies all over the world. Though modern census is the phenomenon of a more recent time in past — in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, evidences indicate that enumeration of people were carried out in different parts of the world even during the ancient time.
The purpose of such enumeration was, however, very limited, i. The earliest example of modern type of census is known to have been conducted in New France present-day Quebec in Canada, in and Iceland in The first periodical census began in the United States in and in Britain and France in Cox, By the middle of the nineteenth century, almost the whole of Europe had developed the system.
In other words, enumeration of the entire population of a country or a region at a particular time is called a census. Periodicity is an important characteristic of a census Clarke, Most of the countries, including India, conduct census every 10 years.
Since census involves counting of all the individuals of a country or a region, the actual exercise is invariably spread over a period of time, say a week or a fortnight. The actual counts, however, refer to a particular date and time known as reference date or census moment or census time.
This is achieved by adjusting the figures for the births, deaths and migration that take place between the actual counting and the reference date through additional inquiries soon after the reference date.
Further, in the enumeration process, two approaches are adopted. As against this, in de jure approach, as in the United States, people are recorded at their normal or usual place of residence.
In some countries, however, a combination of both the approaches is used, for example, in Brazil and England. One of the major problems for a population geographer concerning census data is the difference in the level of detail provided, the accuracy of returns and the period of coverage across different countries of the world.
This renders any international comparison very difficult. However, with the initiatives of the United Nations, a good amount of comparability has been achieved in data, though limited to small number of variables, of different countries.
Furthermore, the census data of the more advanced countries are, in general, more accurate and reliable than those of the underdeveloped or developing countries.
The censuses in such countries are nominative and require individuals or household to complete their own forms Woods, After the Second World War, with the assistance of the United Nations, the developing countries have begun census operations in a more scientific manner, and the output is becoming more and more reliable.
The data on vital events such as births, deaths, marriages, divorces, separations, annulment and adoption etc. The continuous recording of such data is known as vital registration system or civil registration system.
Though, a practice of collecting information on list of baptism, burials and wedding by churches is known to have existed from much earlier time in Europe, vital registration system is a matter of nineteenth and twentieth centuries only.
The first civil registration system was introduced in England and Wales in and Scotland in Britain, however, cannot be regarded as the birthplace of official vital statistics Cox, “ A population census is the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analysing and publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time, to all persons in a country or in a .
Census is the single largest source of data for population studies all over the world. Though modern census is the phenomenon of a more recent time in past – in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, evidences indicate that enumeration of people were carried out in . Another source of population data is the registration of life or vital statistics. Every person is required by law to register with a specified authority such demographic events as birth, death, marriage, divorce, etc. Unlike the census, registration of vital events is a continuous process throughout the year. Provides access and links to many governmental and non-governmental sources of demographic data. Can search by keyword or by broad category. Yale Direct Access to Numeric Data on the Internet.
Data Sources. Below is a list of general data sources. (ACS), the Decennial Census of Population and Housing ( and available), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Pop-up blockers must be turned off to run the DataFerrett application.
Lesson 2 Population Data Sources kaja-net.com Aynalem Adugna ensuring that Joseph and Mary travelled to Bethlehem for the birth of Jesus” .
The census of England and Wales is widely regarded as the first truly modern census. Among the various sources of population data on the basis of method, following are most frequently used resources: Census; Vital registration; Sample surveys; Administrative records; 1.
Census. Census is the main source of demographic data. Besides the population register, there are other records which are secondary sources of demographic data in developed countries.
They maintain population records to meet social security schemes like unemployment insurance and allowance, old age pension, maternity allowance, etc. Another source of population data is the registration of life or vital statistics.
Every person is required by law to register with a specified authority such demographic events as birth, death, marriage, divorce, etc. Unlike the census, registration of vital events is a continuous process throughout the year.