This study examines security, trust, and privacy concerns with regard to social networking Websites among consumers using both reliable scales and measures. It proposes an SNS acceptance model by integrating cognitive as well as affective attitudes as primary influencing factors, which are driven by underlying beliefs, perceived security, perceived privacy, trust, attitude, and intention.
Practical MNC Research Living organisms depend on the action of enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions too slow to support life. Enzymes are central in fighting disease, with most current clinical drugs targeting human, bacterial, or viral enzymes.
Understanding the remarkable catalytic efficiency of enzymes in mechanistic terms has been the goal of biochemistry for decades, and the knowledge has had profound effects on biotechnological processes and drug design.
Science is still working toward this elusive goal, demanding understanding at the level of atoms and electrons. Our approach to study enzymes combines innovative experimental and theoretical methodologies, including X-ray and neutron crystallography, neutron spectroscopy, and molecular simulations, in a novel way, providing mechanistic views of enzymes with unprecedented detail and then applying this knowledge to protein engineering and drug design.
Enzymes rely on moving hydrogen H atoms and activating water molecules for their function. X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance NMR — the major techniques for studying protein structure and function — are typically incapable of producing necessary information on the location and movement of H.
A critical limitation of X-ray crystallography is the weak sensitivity of X-rays to H atoms. With one electron, H is hard to observe in X-ray structures. H often remains invisible even at ultra-high resolution, so the protonation states of amino-acid residues and ligands remain unknown.
Incorrect inference of H positions in protein structures often leads to significant gaps in our knowledge of how they function. Neutrons are scattered as strongly by H, Research methodology about sns its heavier isotope deuterium D Research methodology about sns, as they are by other elements in proteins.
Yet, H possesses negative neutron scattering length, causing cancellation effects in the nuclear density maps, and also has a strong incoherent scattering component that contributes heavily to background. Thus, H is usually exchanged with D in protein crystals to increase signal-to-noise ratio and improve neutron diffraction.
These crystal structures, however, represent only the snapshots of an enzymatic reaction, providing details on intermediate states and possible H transfer routes along the reaction pathway. But, crystallography cannot offer the structures of fleeting transition states, nor can it map reaction pathways.
Quantum chemistry in combination with molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics can map a reaction pathway in a protein; however, an accurate theoretical result can be achieved only if we precisely know the H atom positions.
Our research program consists of three major projects: Mechanistic, drug binding and drug resistance studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 protease and its precursors.
Mechanistic studies of reactivation of organophosphate-conjugated human acetylcholinesterase hAChE by oximes and the design of novel accelerated reactivators.
Mechanistic studies of vitamin B6 PLP -dependent enzymes. HIV-1 protease enzyme plays a vital role in the viral replication cycle during maturation of a newly emerged viral particle into an infectious virion.
The protease is expressed as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein, and catalyzes hydrolysis of the peptide bonds within Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins for its own maturation called autoprocessing and to generate other mature viral enzymes and structural proteins. HIV-1 protease has proven to be an effective target for drug design and development, with 9 clinical protease inhibitors currently marketed in the U.
It has also been viewed as one of the best examples of the structure-guided drug design. However, the long-term potency of protease inhibitors is thwarted by rapid emergence of drug resistant protease variants, which necessitates the constant development of new drugs active against resistant protease variants, with higher barrier to resistance.
Understanding HIV-1 protease function and the mechanisms of drug resistance at atomic level is of paramount importance in our ability to design improved drugs. We are using X-ray and neutron crystallography, neutron spectroscopy and molecular simulations in order gain true atomic picture of the enzyme function, drug binding, and to identify and quantify drug resistance mechanisms.
Our neutron structures of HIV-1 protease with clinical drugs illustrated, for the first time, the exact non-covalent interactions that lead to the effectiveness of amprenavir and darunavir clinical HIV-1 protease inhibitors on the wild-type and mutant enzyme. They also underscored the shortcomings of obtaining crystallographic structures with X-rays at low temperature.
These studies are producing one-of-a-kind, valuable information for the design of new protease inhibitors with improved bindig to drug resistant HIV-1 protease drug resistant variants. In the future, we are aiming to look at extremely drug resistant protease variants with both neutron diffraction and spectroscopy.
The world community is presently witnessing an unfortunate insidious use of nerve agent organophosphates OPs as chemical weapons. Highly efficient antidotes to protect population against those anti-acetylcholinesterase AChE poisons are not available.
The concept of nucleophilic reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE emerged in s from the monumental studies of Irwin Wilson and colleagues who showed that hydroxamates, oximes and hydroxylamines could reactivate alkylphosphate-inhibited AChE. Subsequent studies over the past five decades have yielded minor improvements in reactivation rates and a moderately enhanced efficacy for the antidotes, such as HI6 and MMB4.
Given the rapid AChE inhibition by nerve agent and pesticide OPs, and far slower nucleophilic reactivation by oximes, challenges and opportunities remain. This project aims to investigate structural limitations for the oxime reactivation by cutting edge biophysical study of the native and OP inhibited AChE in order to design accelerated reactivators devoid of those limitations.Research Methodology - KSSEM - SNS.
32 pages. ETHICAL ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 1 Sustainability The ethical dilemmas Bms Institute of Technology & Management MANAGEMENT SCIENCES 14MBA - Fall Unit 3 RESEARCH AND RESEARCH ETHICS (Repaired) 27 pages.
level one has to consider how many stories to analyse and how these should be.
Research Methodology About Sns. Chapter 3 Methodology Research Design The descriptive method of research was used for this study.
To define the descriptive type of research, Creswell () stated that the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.
The emphasis is on describing rather than on. Social Network Sites Sns Education Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. (Alaranta. M, ) Therefore the research methodology in this essay employs statistics and probability to confirm the value of SNS in.
a narrative approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was obtained from Edith Cowan University human ethics department. a detailed description of the study's methodology is provided and the data analysis process was reviewed by two qualitative researchers. “SNS wouldn't necessarily replace that (face.
Here is the best resource for homework help with MANAGEMENT SCIENCES 14MBA Research Methodology at Bms Institute Of Technology & Management. Find. Evidence-based practice is the integration of clinical expertise and systematic research from clinical trials and basic sciences.
While it is clear that much more research needs to be undertaken into neuromagnetics, comments such as "there is no evidence to support the use of magnetic therapy in clinical practice" shows a misunderstanding or high .