The test has four sections reading, listening, speaking, and writingeach with a score range offor a total score range of It accurately measures how well you can listen, read and write in English while performing academic tasks. Minimum required score Grade A:
Widening Access to Refugees: Responses of Austrian Public Universities Isil Gyney Background of the study The year marked a turning point in migration history of world as violence, persecution, war, poverty, climate change and natural disasters drove millions of people away from their homes and generated prolonged displacements.
The UN figures United Nations, indicate that the number of international migrants have surged substantially in the last two decades from million in up to million in Refugees constituted a significant part of this mass exodus of people.
Accordingly, over a million migrants and refugees crossed borders into Europe in the last few years, which sparked a migration crisis unprecedented in scale in Europe since s.
Having caught unprepared for large streams of migration, Europe has had to tackle with an array of policy issues ranging from humanitarian aid, border control, human trafficking, integration, education, European neighborhood policy, disputes between member countries on EU common law relating to asylum, borders and immigration and so on.
As the primary concern of hosting countries has been humanitarian aid related to food, shelter, and health in this process, it has taken a while to realize that due to displacement, refugee youth miss out on higher education HE. Analyzing the current situation from the perspective of human capital, they highlight the potential of refugees in knowledge economy and benefits HEIs could derive from widening access to refugee students.
Recognizing the both immediate and long-term challenges ahead, the authors draw attention to the fact that integration of refugees could yield positive results for integration of refugees, internationalizing the campus and social engagement of academic communities.
Along with the call to academic community and universities, widening access to refugees has started to be more commonly discussed in the context of EHEA and social dimension of Bologna process as it is closely linked with the overall goals of the latter.
Yet, increased participation of underrepresented groups still remains a challenge for the Bologna process. In this context, the focus of this thesis is refugees who constitute just one segment of these underrepresented groups and their access to higher education.
Given the vast bulk of literature dealing with immigration and integration, the thesis probes into access of refugees into higher education within the context of Austrian HE and responses of universities in their efforts to integrate them into their systems.
Having been the third country that has received the most asylum applications in Europe, Austria has tried both to reconcile between handling the refugee crisis and political debates that come along with it.
The Universities Austria UNIKO launched an initiative called MORE for refugees solely targeting refugee students in September with participation of 19 public universities for humanitarian aid, fundraising, language courses and integration based on their infrastructure and capabilities and universities exerted varying degrees of efforts for facilitation of access of refugees.
Research Objective and Research Question The overall aim of this research is to expand an understanding of a how a national higher education system in Europe responds to including refugees with emphasis on recent developments upon the case of emergency pursuant to an unexpected mass migration.
Thus, the objectives of this research are to: What kind of approaches do universities adopt to include refugees and asylum seekers? What obstacles do they face in achieving this objective? Conceptual Framework Three main bodies of literature underpinned the conceptual framework. It was adapted from the conceptual framework proposed by Ager and Strang for identifying key domains of integration into the host society.
Macro level policies stand for policies, laws, rules, procedures of supranational institutions that affect policy making processes at meso and micro levels such as European Union or any other binding policy context such as common immigration laws, Bologna process, higher education laws, or Lisbon Treaty and so on.
While meso-level refers to processes taking at the national level, government policies related to migration or higher education, micro level refers to institutional processes, activities of individual HE institutions, units, student unions, individual students, researchers or academicians.
At the national and institutional level, dimensions of admission, recognition of foreign qualifications, language, finance and integration will be utilized. Recognition of Prior Learning Methodology The research delves into integration of refugees into Austrian universities inclusion by adopting qualitative case study as research strategy and by collecting qualitative data from pertinent stakeholders.
The study unit of analysis is public universities in Austria. There are four types of universities in Austria; public universities, universities of applied sciences, university colleges of teacher education and private universities.
Public universities were chosen as unit of analysis as they participate in the refugee initiative of the UNIKO. The case study data in this study relies on two data collection techniques: Data Collection First source of data was collected through semi-structured interviews from various stakeholders representing Austrian higher education system.
Each interview lasted approximately minutes. During face-to-face interviews, 13 participants agreed for their interviews to be audio-recorded by a voice recorder of a mobile phone. Notes were taken down during one interview, in which the participant gave no consent for audio-recording.
Consent was obtained from all participants. Consent letters including information on the purpose and scope of the thesis and questions, participation terms and confidentiality were sent to participants.
In some cases, consent was obtained verbally before the interview. Data Analysis Qualitative content analysis was adopted as data analysis strategy for both interviews and documents.
Then the data were organized into major themes, categories and case examples through content analysis.
For interviews, a directed content analysis approach was adopted. Key Findings and Discussion Findings reveal that Austria has been paying more attention to social dimension of HE recently.
This was reflected with the start of the national strategy preparation process for social dimension of HE.Sjoukje Haitjema eGovernment Trends Within the European Union S/ Master Thesis European Studies 3 Executive Summary The goal of this thesis is to examine the trends of eGovernment in the European Union.
The petition must be accompanied by a thesis proposal and letters of recommendation from two faculty members of the Master of Arts in History or the Master of Arts in Military History program.
The research-intensive master’s in European Studies is an interdisciplinary programme that combines political science and international relations with history and sociology.
Research plays a primary role from the outset, with research projects integrated into each core module. The European Studies Option (ESO) is a cross-disciplinary program offered as an option within the existing LL.M.
Thesis program. This option is open to students whose work is focused on Europe, in particular on issues relating to European integration, broadly understood. FindAMasters is a directory of Masters degrees and postgraduate qualifications at universities around the world..
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