A guide to French education 2 comments This guide to education in France, from primary school to higher education, will help you enrol your child into the French education system. After completing compulsory French education, a student can consider higher education courses in France.
Summary of Basic American Legal Principles What follows are some of the fundamental principles that comprise the American legal system.
Each of these is discussed in greater detail in this and other chapters of this book. They are summarized below in order to give the reader an overview of some of the basics of American common law.
Impact of Precedent—The Principle of Stare Decisis The defining principle of common law is the requirement that courts follow decisions of higher level courts within the same jurisdiction. It is from this legacy of stare decisis that a somewhat predictable, consistent body of law has emerged.
Court Hierarchy Court level or hierarchy defines to a great degree the extent to which a decision by one court will have a binding effect on another court.
The federal court system, for instance, is based on a three-tiered structure, in which the United States District Courts are the trial-level courts; the United States Court of Appeals is the first level court of appeal; and the United States Supreme Court is the final arbiter of the law.
Although the term most often is used in connection with the jurisdiction of a court over particular matters, one may also speak of matters being within or beyond the jurisdiction of any other governmental entity. For instance, while there is only one Supreme Court, the court of appeals is divided into 13 circuits, and there are 94 district courts.
The issue of whether authority is mandatory or persuasive relates directly to the application of stare decisis principles. Primary versus Secondary Authority The various sources of law may also be broken down into primary and secondary sources of law.
Primary sources of law may be mandatory on a particular court, or they may be merely persuasive. Whether they are binding or persuasive will depend on various factors. Secondary authority is not itself law, and is never mandatory authority. A court may, however, look towards secondary sources of law for guidance as to how to resolve a particular issue.
Secondary authority is also useful as a case finding tool and for general information about a particular issue.
Dual Court Systems The American legal system is based on a system of federalism, or decentralization. Most states have court systems which mirror that of the federal court system.
Interrelationship Among Various Sources of Law One of the more complex notions of American jurisprudence is the extent to which the various sources of law, from both the state and federal systems, interrelate with one another.
There is a complex set of rules that defines the relative priority among various sources of law and between the state and federal systems.
In the American system, these preferences remain intact, for the system is very welcoming to diversity and seeks to attract heterogeneous students. To conclude this parallel, we may say that much more than the French, the American universities are faithful to the heritage of the Renaissance. Concepts: System Perspective Taking into account all of the behaviors of a system as a whole in the context of its environment is the systems perspective. While the concept of system itself is a more general notion that indicates separation of part of the universe from the rest, the idea of a systems perspective is to use a non-reductionist. Today, though any such a bold overall affirmation must be open to question, it is still true to say that the French education system is one of the more successful in the world, and that in certain fields it remains a world leader. According to theOECD, France's education system is average, compared to other developed countries.
What Is Common Law? Civil law systems rely less on court precedent and more on codes, which explicitly provide rules of decision for many specific disputes. Cases are legal determinations based on a set of particular facts involving parties with a genuine interest in the controversy.
In cases of pure decisional law, there is no applicable statute or constitutional provision that applies. Court interpretation may rely upon prior decisional law interpreting same or some other constitutional provision.
Court interpretation may rely upon prior decisional law interpreting the same or similar statute. A higher level court opinion will in effect abrogate the lower level court opinion in the same case.
Has it been followed?
Applied in a specific way? The American Judicial System: A System Based on Advocacy and the Presence of Actual Controversy The American legal system is adversarial and is based on the premise that a real, live dispute involving parties with a genuine interest in its outcome will allow for the most vigorous legal debate of the issues, and that courts should not have the power to issue decisions unless they are in response to a genuine controversy.
Threshold Issues Designed to Preclude Advisory Opinions Given the prohibition against advisory opinions by the federal courts, there are certain threshold prerequisites which must be satisfied before a federal court will hear a case.
Issues surrounding the applicability of these prerequisites may also arise in state courts and on petitions for review of agency orders. The principal prerequisites to court review are the following: Standing—The parties must have an actual, cognizable, usually pecuniary or proprietary, interest in the litigation.
Finality—In the case of appeals or agency review, the action by the trial court or administrative body must be final and have a real impact on the parties. Exhaustion—The parties must have exhausted any possible avenues for relief available in the trial court or administrative body.
Ripeness—The dispute must present a current controversy which has immediate rather than anticipated or hypothetical effects on the parties.
Mootness—The dispute must not have been resolved. Nor must the circumstances have changed in any way that renders the dispute no longer subject to controversy.
No Political Questions—Courts will not involve themselves in nonjusticiable disputes that are between the other two branches of the federal government and are of a political nature. While these prerequisites are well-established, the courts tend to apply them in a pragmatic way and allow exceptions to these requirements when warranted by the facts.
Courts Generally Confine Themselves to the Dispute Presented for Resolution As a jurisdictional matter, courts are supposed to restrict their holdings to the narrowest terms possible in resolving a dispute.
This limitation relates to the principle of dictum, under which portions of the opinion not required for the resolution of the precise issues before the court on the facts presented by the parties are of diminished precedential value.In the American system, these preferences remain intact, for the system is very welcoming to diversity and seeks to attract heterogeneous students.
To conclude this parallel, we may say that much more than the French, the American universities are faithful to the heritage of the Renaissance. French School Education. Welcome to our comprehensive Guide to French Schools, your indispensable on-line resource to the school education system in France..
Our review of the system is an extensive one, from the basic structure of school education through to a consideration of the individual stages - crèches, primary and secondary . The French educational system is highly centralized and organized, with many subdivisions. It is divided into the three stages of enseignement primaire, enseignement secondaire, and enseignement supérieur.
In French higher education, the following degrees are recognized by the Bologna Process: Licence and Licence Professionnelle, and the comparably named Master and Doctorat degrees. A Historical Overview of the Challenges for African Americans K12 through College Education in America Arthur C.
Evans III Keiser University, USA Abstract: The early American education system developed around the segregation of White and African American students.
These differences in. The American example in business study, technology, and perhaps even in the pure sciences has provided a counter to native French institutions.
In fact, some of the newer of these institutions directly copy and Gallicize American models, both physically and programmatically. Historically, American education served both political and economic needs, which dictated the function of education.
Today, sociologists and educators debate the function of education. Three main theories represent their views: the functionalist theory, the conflict theory, and the symbolic interactionist theory.